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On December 7, 2015, researchers from the Environmental Defense Fund published a peer-reviewed paper in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, which attempts to reconcile region-wide top-down and bottom-up estimates of methane emissions from natural gas production activities using data collected during measurement studies in the Barnett Shale region of Texas. By improving both methodologies the researchers demonstrate significant convergence of results – in the paper central top-down and bottom-up estimates of region-wide emission rates (Mg CH4/hr) in the 25-county Barnett region agree within 10 percent for fossil methane and within 0.1 percent for total methane. These new estimates suggest that fossil-related methane emissions in the Barnett region are almost twice as high as emissions estimated in EPA’s Greenhouse Gas Inventory. This issue brief explores the study's key findings and their significance.